Our pre mixed peptide pens include a pen case, pen needles and a cartridge with your chosen reconstituted peptide ready to use. This is much easier, quicker and more accurate than using a vial and syringe. Pen kits can be bought as complete sets or individual cartridges can be purchased for top ups.
PEN is an abundant neuropeptide produced by the proSAAS precursor protein and has been implicated in feeding. We have shown that PEN binds and activates GPR83, a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor. Interestingly, the GPR83 and the neuropeptide bigLEN, which also binds to the G protein Gaq and is generated from proSAAS, colocalize in some brain regions. Furthermore, coexpression of these two G protein-coupled receptors alters their signaling properties and indicates functional interaction between these two ligands (7).
In vivo studies showed that bath application of 100 nM mPEN increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents evoked in PVN neurons. Moreover, mPEN elicited an increase in GTPS binding to mouse hypothalamic membranes, and this effect was blocked by the soluble inhibitor of the Gi/o complex, GF21034. The ability of mPEN to induce GTPS binding was impaired in GPR83 knockout tissue, suggesting that this receptor is the main target for PEN actions in these cells.
These findings indicate that mPEN is a potent and selective agonist for the GPR83 receptor, and they support the hypothesis that this molecule may regulate appetite through the inhibition of GTPS accumulation. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach in targeting peptide therapeutics, aiming at not only the selection of an appropriate molecule and its target receptor, but also at the formulation to ensure bioavailability and patient adherence.peptides